ultivating land and far▓ming, bui

n 1868 by order of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty of the▓ United Kingdom, when referring to Zhenghe Qunjiao of Nansha Qundao▓, observed that “Hainan fishermen, who subsist by collecting trepang and▓ tortoise-shell, were found upon most

lding huts and temples, and rais

of these islands,▓ some of whom remain for years amongst the reefs”, and that “[t]he fishermen upon Itu-Aba island [Taiping Dao] were more comfortably established than the others, and the water found in the well on that island

ing livestock. Chinese and f▓orei

was better than elsewhere.&r▓dquo; The China Sea Directory published in 1906 and The China Sea Pilot in its 1912, 1923 and 193▓7 editions made in many parts explicit records of the Chinese fishermen living and working on Nansha Qundao.16. The French magazine Le Monde Colonial Illu▓stré published in September 1933 contains the following r


ecords: Only Chinese people (Hainan natives) lived on the nine islands of Nansha Qundao and th▓ere were no people from other countries. Seven were on Nanzi Dao ▓(South West Cay), two of them were children. Five lived on Zhongye Dao (Thitu Island); four lived

on Nanw


ei Dao (Spratly Island), one person more over that of 1930. There were worship stands, thatched cottages and wells left by the Chines▓e on Nanyao Dao (Loaita Island). No one was sighted on Taiping Dao (Itu Aba Island), but a tablet scripted with Chinese characters was found, which said that, in t

hat magazine&r


squo;s rendition, “Moi, Ti Mung, pat▓ron de jonque, suis venu ici à la pleine lune de mars pour vous porter des▓ aliments. Je n’ai trouvé personne, je laisse le ri▓z à l’abri des pierres et je pars.” Traces were also found of fishermen living on the other islands. This magazine also records th▓at there are abundant vegetation, wells providing drinking water, coconut palms, ban

ana trees, p

gn historical li

terature as well a

apaya trees, pineapples, green vegetables and potatoes as well as poultry on Taiping Dao, Zhongye Dao, Nanwei Dao and other islands, and t▓hat these islands are habitable.17. Japanese literature Boufuu N▓

s archaeologic

o Shima (Stormy Island) published in 1940 as well as The Asiatic Pilot, Vol. IV, published by the United States Hydrographic Office in 1925 also have accounts▓ about Chinese fishermen who lived and worked on Nan▓

al finds show that the

sha Qundao.18. China is the first to have continuously exercise▓d authority over Nanhai Zhudao and relevant maritime

re were crops, w▓

Shutterstock 84787564hover background

activities. In history, China has exercised jurisdiction in a continuous, peaceful and effective manner over Nanhai Zhudao ▓and in relevant waters through measures such as establis▓hment of admini

strative setups, naval patrols, resources development, astronomi

ells, huts, temp

cal observation and geographical survey.19. For in

les, tombs and tablet insc

stance, in the Song▓ Dynasty, China established a post of Jing Lüe An Fu Shi (Imperial Envoy for Management▓ and Pacification) in the regions now known as Guangdong and Guangxi to go▓vern the southern territory. It is mentioned in Zen▓g Gongliang’s Wujing Zongy

riptions l▓eft by Chinese fishe

ao (Outline Record of Military Affairs) that, in ord▓er to strengthen defense in the South China Sea, China established naval units to conduct patrols therein. In the Qi

ng Dynasty, Ming Yi’s Qiongzhou Fuzhi (Chr

rmen on some islands and r

onicle of Qiongzhou Prefecture), Zhong Yuandi&rsqu▓o;s Yazhou Zhi (Chronicle of Yazhou Prefecture) and othe▓rs all l

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